1987 Constitution of the Philippines How Many Articles

Article II sets out the fundamental social and political creed of the Philippines, in particular the implementation of the Constitution and defines the objectives of the Government. Here are some key provisions: The preamble introduces the Constitution and the source of sovereignty, the people. It follows the pattern of past constitutions, including a call to God. The preamble reads as follows:[9] (2) All cases concerning the constitutionality of a treaty, an international or executive agreement or an Act that are heard before the Supreme Court in the bench, as well as all other cases that must be heard in the bench under the judicial order, including those concerning constitutionality, the application or enforcement of presidential decrees, proclamations, ordinances, directives, regulations and other regulations shall be adopted with the consent of a majority of the members who have effectively participated in and voted on the deliberations on the matters in dispute. SECTION 1. The first elections of the members of Congress under this Constitution shall be held on the second Monday of May 1987. SECTION 2. However, where the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commission may take such measures, including temporary or specific preliminary audits, as are necessary and appropriate to remedy the deficiencies. It keeps the general accounts of the government and keeps the vouchers and other related documents for the period provided for by law.

The first constitution establishing a “Philippine Republic,” the Malolos Constitution of 1899, was never fully implemented in the Philippines and did not establish an internationally recognized state, largely due to the outbreak of the Philippine-American War after its adoption. The Commonwealth Constitution was ratified to prepare the country for independence. This constitution was largely influenced by the Americans, but has traces of the Malolos Constitution, the German, Spanish and Mexican Constitutions, the constitutions of several South American countries and the unwritten English Constitution. ARTICLE 17. A public servant or employee must make an affidavit of his or her assets, liabilities and assets upon taking up his or her duties and as often thereafter as required by law. In the case of the President, the Vice-President, members of the Cabinet, Congress, the Supreme Court, constitutional commissions and other constitutional functions, as well as officers of the armed forces of the general or flag rank, the declaration shall be made available to the public in the manner prescribed by law. ARTICLE 18. Public servants and employees owe allegiance to the State and to this Constitution at all times, and any public servant or employee who wishes to change citizenship or acquire immigration status from another country during his or her term of office shall be dealt with by law.

The Constitution established three independent constitutional commissions, namely, the Civil Service Commission, the Electoral Commission and the Audit Commission. These constitutional commissions have different functions. The Constitution also paved the way for the establishment of the Office of the Ombudsman, whose mission is to promote and ensure ethical and legal conduct on the part of the Government. [3] (a) Any case in which the constitutionality or validity of a treaty, international or executive agreement, law, presidential decree, proclamation, order, order, order or order is called into question. The Katipunane Revolution led to the Tejeros Convention, in which the first presidential and vice-presidential elections in the history of the Philippines were held on March 22, 1897 in San Francisco de Malabón, Cavite – although only the Katipuneros (i.e. members of the Katipunan) could participate and not the general population. A subsequent meeting of the revolutionary government founded there, which took place on November 1, 1897 in Biak-na-Bato in the city of San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan, founded the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. The republic had a constitution drafted by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer and based on the first Cuban constitution. [19] It is known as the “Constitución Provisional de la República de Filipinas” and was originally written and proclaimed in Spanish and Tagalog. [20] President Corazon Aquino, who ruled by decree in the first months of her term as president established by the people`s power revolution, was offered three options: restore the 1935 constitution, maintain and reform the 1973 constitution, or adopt a new constitution. He decided to draft a new constitution and, on March 25, 1986, issued Proclamation No. 3, which repealed many provisions of the 1973 Constitution adopted under the Marcos regime, including the unicameral legislature (batasang Pambansa), the Prime Minister`s Office, and provisions that gave the president legislative powers.

Often referred to as the “Constitution of Freedom”[2], this Constitution was conceived as a transitional constitution to ensure democracy and the freedom of the people. The Freedom Constitution provided for an orderly transfer of power, while a constitutional commission drafted a permanent constitution. SECTION 3. The Congress may convene a Constitutional Convention by a vote of two-thirds of all its members or, by a majority of all its members, submit to the electorate the question of convening such a Convention. We would appreciate your comments on the newsletter. We read every message and respond to many! Please email your thoughts and suggestions to climateteam@nytimes.com. Since 1987, polar bear researchers at the Norwegian Polar Institute have been on annual trips to the icy nature to find and study polar bears. See how they do it. Although not a constitution in itself, the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 provided for autonomy. Specified requirements for a formal constitution and mechanisms defined for its establishment by a constitutional convention. The Malolos Constitution was the first republican constitution in Asia. [21] He declared that sovereignty rested exclusively with the people, established basic civil rights, separated church and state, and called for the creation of an assembly of deputies to act as a legislative body.

She also called for a parliamentary republic as a form of government. The President was elected by a majority of the Assembly for a four-year term. [22] It was entitled “Constitución política” and was written in Spanish after the Declaration of Independence of Spain[23] proclaimed on January 20, 1899 and adopted and ratified by the Congress of Malolos, a congress in Malolos, Bulacan. [24] [25] The Constitutional Commission was composed of forty-eight members appointed by Aquino of various origins, including several former members of the House of Representatives, former Supreme Court judges, a Roman Catholic bishop, and political activists opposed to the Marcos regime. Aquino has appointed Cecilia Muñoz-Palma, former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, as President of the Commission. Several issues were of particular importance at the meetings of the Commission, including the form of government to be adopted, the abolition of the death penalty, the maintenance of the United States. . .

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